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RSA techniques

effect of Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Lateralization Design on Scapular Notching: A Single-Surgeon experience | 050-V37-ENVCSE01 boot camp and PDF Braindumps

The indications for reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) continue to expand as survivorship of implanted components has tested increasing toughness in comparison with anatomic designs. although, complication costs have been pronounced to be higher than anatomic shoulder arthroplasty.1 when you consider that the introduction of the preliminary Grammont design, a lot of changes of the reverse prosthesis design were implemented with a view to lessen complications.2 Scapular notching remains a concern across each the medialized and lateralized middle of rotation (CoR) designs. Over the lengthy-term, notching can compromise glenoid baseplate steadiness and enhance the chance of part loosening.three Some authors have additionally referred to poorer results in shoulders with notching.4–6 rates of scapular notching had been pronounced between 33% and 92% for Grammont-trend designs.7,8 an identical collection evaluating lateralized designs have stated reduce incidences of notching (between 0% and 29%).9,10

varied basic science reviews have evaluated the implication of the neck-shaft attitude and glenoid design features on the quotes of notching.11–13 youngsters, few medical reports have without delay evaluated the impact of prosthetic design on notching in vivo among distinctive designs. Kowalsky et al8 compared 2 RSA designs with differing humeral inlay geometry. using a varying thickness inlay polyethylene resulted in a 63% decrease in notching at early follow-up.8 This examine remains restricted by way of the indisputable fact that each implants have been Grammont-fashion designs with inset humeral accessories. currently, no published reviews without delay compare the costs of notching for medialized and lateralized RSA designs.

The basic purpose of this analyze became to evaluate the fee of scapular notching in a single surgeon's journey the use of distinct RSA prosthesis designs. Secondary outcomes protected scientific effects, affected person-mentioned outcomes (pros), and reoperation.

substances and methods

Between June 2004 and July 2014, a total of 146 patients (157 shoulders) underwent fundamental RSA through a single surgeon (T.W.W.) for a analysis of cuff tear arthropathy or osteoarthritis with rotator cuff insufficiency. patient records were retrospectively reviewed from a prospectively gathered database following institutional evaluate board approval. All shoulders have been treated the use of a deltopectoral strategy. Given the time span of the examine, comply with-up changed into controlled and evaluated best between three and 5 years after primary arthroplasty. One shoulder changed into eradicated because of insufficient radiographs. The final 156 RSAs were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 4.1 years (latitude, 3–5 years).

Shoulders have been grouped in response to implant design: medialized CoR with an inlay humerus (Grammont), lateralized CoR glenoid with an inlay humerus (lateralized glenosphere), and medialized CoR with an onlay humerus (lateralized humerus; figure 1).14,15 during the study period, the senior surgeon (T.W.W.) changed the simple implant design twice. originally, Grammont-fashion implants had been used: Aequalis (Tornier, Minneapolis, Minnesota; June 2004 to can also 2006, n=13) and Delta III (DePuy, Warsaw, Indiana; October 2005 to August 2006, n=4). Between September 2005 and January 2011, the Encore (DJO, Vista, California) lateralized CoR glenoid design was used (n=14). beginning in may additionally 2007, the basic RSA implant used was the Equinoxe (n=one hundred twenty five; Exactech, Gainesville, Florida) with a lateralized humerus design. Demographic statistics for each and every group are introduced in table 1.

Grammont prosthesis showing a glenosphere with the center of rotation at the glenoid face with minimal humeral offset (left). The lateralized glenosphere component demonstrates the glenosphere center of rotation lateral to the face of the glenoid face with minimal humeral offset (center). The lateralized humerus component demonstrates minimal offset of the glenosphere center of rotation from the glenoid face with lateralization of the humeral shaft from the scapula (right). [Reprinted with permission from Routman HD, Flurin PH, Wright TW, Zuckerman JD, Hamilton MA, Roche CP. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty prosthesis design classification system. Bull Hosp Jt Dis. 2015(suppl1):S5–S14.]

determine 1:

Grammont prosthesis showing a glenosphere with the center of rotation on the glenoid face with minimal humeral offset (left). The lateralized glenosphere part demonstrates the glenosphere center of rotation lateral to the face of the glenoid face with minimal humeral offset (center). The lateralized humerus component demonstrates minimal offset of the glenosphere middle of rotation from the glenoid face with lateralization of the humeral shaft from the scapula (appropriate). [Reprinted with permission from Routman HD, Flurin PH, Wright TW, Zuckerman JD, Hamilton MA, Roche CP. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty prosthesis design classification system. Bull Hosp Jt Dis. 2015(suppl1):S5–S14.]

Demographic Data for All Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasties by Implant Design

table 1:

Demographic data for All Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasties by way of Implant Design

Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and closing postoperative radiographs were reviewed for all patients. Standardized Grashey and axillary lateral radiographs had been mechanically carried out for all shoulders. Preoperative Grashey radiographs had been used to measure the subacromial interval in millimeters. Preoperative glenoid inclination become assessed the usage of both the scapular alpha angle as described through Bufquin et al16 and the scapular beta attitude described by Maurer et al17 (determine 2).

Preoperative anteroposterior radiograph showing alpha and beta angles.

figure 2:

Preoperative anteroposterior radiograph displaying alpha and beta angles.

Three orthopedic surgeons (B.S.S., H.T., J.J.k.) evaluated all postoperative radiographs to investigate glenoid notching, which was graded according to Sirveaux et al18 (determine three). In situations of disagreement, a majority consensus become used because the recorded grade. The performing surgeon (T.W.W.) didn't participate in radiographic evaluation. further radiographic outcomes measures covered acromiohumeral interval, scapular neck length, glenosphere overhang, alpha attitude, beta angle, and humeral part lucent lines, as described via Sperling et al.20 Glenoid overhang turned into corrected for magnification based on the regular size of the implanted glenosphere.

Immediate postoperative anteroposterior radiograph (A) of a lateralized humerus prosthesis compared with a 4.5-year postoperative antero-posterior radiograph (B) showing grade 2 notching (arrows).

determine three:

instant postoperative anteroposterior radiograph (A) of a lateralized humerus prosthesis compared with a four.5-12 months postoperative antero-posterior radiograph (B) showing grade 2 notching (arrows).

Postoperative latitude of motion became assessed and compared amongst corporations by means of implant design. All latitude of movement measures had been independently assessed by means of a scientific research coordinator (A.M.S.). forward elevation and exterior rotation have been assessed in levels the use of a goniometer. internal rotation turned into decided by way of the level reached through the thumb behind the lower back. Pre- and postoperative pros blanketed Shoulder ache and incapacity Index, university of California la shoulder ranking, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, the regular score, the brief kind-12 rating, and the elementary Shoulder verify score.

Statistical evaluation

A Kruskal–Wallis verify became performed to verify the alterations in preoperative clinical and radiographic parameters, as well as in postoperative scientific parameters and radiographic parameters. Statistical value was set at P<.05. When a significant change between the 3 groups became identified, a submit hoc evaluation become carried out to extra represent the difference. A chi-square look at various became used to establish change in the price of notching latest between distinctive corporations.


a total of 156 fundamental RSAs were evaluated between three and 5 years postoperatively. comply with-up was identical among all companies (P=.7). usual body mass index became tremendously decrease for Grammont shoulders in comparison with both the lateralized glenosphere and lateralized humerus corporations (P=.009; table 1). The organizations have been otherwise similar regarding age, intercourse, and preoperative analysis.

Radiographic effects

Preoperative radiographs tested similar glenoid inclination among all agencies as measured via the alpha and beta angles. The acromiohumeral interval become greatly lower in the lateralized glenosphere community compared with the lateralized humerus neighborhood (1.4 vs four.1 mm, P=.005). The acromiohumeral interval became equivalent between the Grammont and lateralized humerus corporations (P=.three). Full preoperative radiographic statistics are offered in table 2.

Preoperative Radiographic Measures by Implant Design

table 2:

Preoperative Radiographic Measures through Implant Design

Postoperative radiographic evaluation confirmed no change in glenoid tilt in line with the alpha attitude, as described through Bufquin et al.sixteen although, when assessing glenoid baseplate tilt the usage of the formula of Maurer et al,17 inferior tilt become significantly greater within the lateralized humerus community in comparison with the lateralized glenosphere neighborhood (beta perspective, eighty two.3° vs 88.2°; P=.028). Inferior tilt turned into similar between Grammont accessories (beta perspective, eighty four.4°) and each other corporations. Glenosphere overhang turned into enormously more suitable in the lateralized humerus group (5.68 mm) in comparison with both the Grammont (−1.35 mm) and lateralized glenosphere (0.sixty six mm) agencies (P<.001 and P=.001, respectively). Postoperative radiographic statistics are summarized in table three.

Postoperative Radiographic Measures by Implant Design

desk 3:

Postoperative Radiographic Measures by using Implant Design

Scapular notching was followed tremendously extra commonly within the Grammont (eighty two%) and lateralized glenosphere (fifty seven%) organizations compared with the lateralized humerus group (22%; P<.001; figure four and determine 5). The fees of notching and grade are displayed in desk three. mean notching grade turned into decrease within the lateralized humerus group (0.24) in comparison with the Grammont (2.06, P<.001) and lateralized glenosphere (1.07, P=.01) agencies. No statistical difference became identified between the suggest notching grade of Grammont and lateralized glenosphere desgins (P=.15). Humeral radiolucent lines have been identical amongst all businesses (P=.eight).

Early (A) and 4-year (B) postoperative anteroposterior radiographs demonstrating a lateralized glenosphere prosthesis with grade 2 notching (arrows).

determine four:

Early (A) and 4-yr (B) postoperative anteroposterior radiographs demonstrating a lateralized glenosphere prosthesis with grade 2 notching (arrows).

Early (A) and 5-year (B) postoperative anteroposterior radiographs demonstrating a lateralized humerus prosthesis with no notching.

determine 5:

Early (A) and 5-12 months (B) postoperative anteroposterior radiographs demonstrating a lateralized humerus prosthesis with no notching.

clinical effects

Postoperative ache, latitude of movement, and pros were equivalent among all groups, in spite of implant design (desk four). Three sufferers underwent revision or reoperation within the first 5 years of observe-up. One patient treated with a lateralized humerus RSA developed enormous shoulder pain postoperatively that turned into associated with a sensation of prosthetic subluxation. four years postoperatively, an evaluation below anesthesia become recommended with feasible revision. beneath initial fluoroscopic comparison, the prosthesis changed into now not capable of be dislocated, but mechanical clicking become palpable. A revision turned into performed and excessive shuck turned into mentioned within the glenohumeral articulation. A modular exchange with a larger glenosphere and polyethylene trade was carried out.

Postoperative Patient-Reported Outcomes by Implant Design

table four:

Postoperative affected person-reported consequences by means of Implant Design

one other affected person handled with a Grammont RSA developed a unfastened glenoid baseplate. A revision was performed three years postoperatively, all over which the implant become transformed to a hemiarthroplasty due to deficient glenoid bone inventory.

finally, a third affected person handled with a lateralized humerus RSA sustained a Wright/Cofield classification B periprosthetic humeral shaft fracture 2 years postoperatively. Intraoperative assessment confirmed a solid humeral implant, and the fracture become fixed essentially with retention of all arthroplasty components.


Scapular notching remains a priority throughout RSA designs, with reported prices between 0% and ninety two%.7,eight,19,21 established possibility factors for notching include a lower preoperative acromiohumeral interval, a lower physique mass index, superior inclination of the glenoid, and fewer inferior glenosphere offset.7,22 Notching has prior to now been associated with poorer functional outcomes and implant loosening.5,21 Efforts to cut notching were evident with design advancements in RSA. youngsters, studies comparing the charges of notching between implants stay restricted.eight The current examine displays a single surgeon's event with loads of implant designs.

in the present analyze, scapular notching became seen more often within the Grammont (eighty two%) and lateralized glenosphere (fifty seven%) agencies in comparison with the lateralized humerus neighborhood (22%). The high fee of notching viewed with the Grammont-vogue design is akin to other stories on this design.21 due to the fact this became the first implant used in this sequence, capabilities of inferior baseplate placement probably played a role within the change in notching prices between the Grammont-fashion and lateralized humerus designs.

The general position of the inferior glenosphere turned into 1 mm above the inferior margin of the glenoid within the Grammont neighborhood, compared with 5 mm under in the lateralized humeral group. This seemingly contributed to humeral impingement and secondary notching. despite the fact, the notching fee observed in the current look at is still in the latitude mentioned by way of previous reports, including those the use of more modern concepts.7,eight

not like within the Grammont neighborhood, the pronounced notching rate of the lateralized glenosphere group in the present sequence turned into greater than old reports. In 2008, Cuff et al23 suggested on 112 sufferers handled with a lateralized glenosphere implant at an average comply with-up of 27.5 months, without a patients setting up scapular notching. despite the same follow-up within the latest analyze, notching with this implant design was greater (57%).

A greater fresh file on patients younger than 55 years with a median comply with-up of sixty two months documented a notching price of 4.2%.24 It continues to be unclear why the notching grade in the present study is greater than outdated reviews. The lateralized glenosphere community in the present look at did have the lowest preoperative acromiohumeral interval but had similar postoperative alpha angles as the different organizations. The beta attitude changed into greatly stronger and the glenosphere overhang became greatly much less in the lateralized glenosphere design compared with the lateralized humeral design. a few of this can be concerning advancing strategies with reduce glenosphere placement and improved inferior tilt. besides the fact that children, with a lateralized glenosphere, the importance of inferior tilt and offset may still be lessened because of the glenoid design minimizing inferior humeral impingement.25

Notching of the lateralized humerus design was additionally higher than old reports on similar implants. Roche et al22 mentioned 151 shoulders at a median follow-up of 28 months handled with the equal lateralized humerus design. They said a scapular notching price of 13.2%,22 compared with the 22% expense in the present examine. The reason for the change is uncertain. it is viable that this may be concerning surgeon method and possibly glenoid version, however this turned into no longer evaluated by using either analyze. Inferior overhand become equivalent in each businesses, with Roche et al22 reporting a median inferior overhand of four.9 mm compared with 5.7 mm within the current analyze. Roche et al22 did not check inferior tilt in relation to the scapular spine, thus the effect of inferior inclination on the price of notching between agencies cannot be assessed.

although notching prices pronounced within the current analyze for all implants are inside the described range following RSA, the severity of notching within the Grammont group became tremendously improved than within the lateralized humerus community.7–10,21,22,26 much less normal and severe notching become observed within the lateralized humerus neighborhood. As brought up previously, the larger rate of notching with the Grammont design is likely partly explained via the studying curve linked to the use of RSA because these implants were positioned better on the face of the glenoid with less inferior tilt.

cutting-edge builders of the Grammont-trend prosthesis have increasingly diagnosed the value of lateralization, with some surgeons performing a bio-RSA so as to lateralize the CoR and reduce notching.27 more latest reports examining the effect of biologic lateralization with a Grammont-style design have proven lower rates of notching with a bio-RSA configuration (5%) compared with medialized placement of the glenosphere (27.5%).28 Athwal et al6 showed identical growth with bio-RSA lateralization in comparison with a medialized baseplate place (40% vs seventy five%, P=.022). based on their outcomes, the present authors have been unable to evaluate the effect of bio-RSA lateralization with a Grammont prosthesis on notching in comparison with different implant designs.

regardless of the larger charges of notching within the Grammont and lateralized glenosphere agencies, patients across all agencies established identical postoperative execs and latitude of movement. here's in contract with the literature, the place no single implant design has established sophisticated effects when evaluating an identical pathology.four,9,23 The similarities in results despite notching assist different small studies, which have not proven scapular notching to affect professionals.6,10,23 besides the fact that children, larger reviews with more power have shown poorer consequences in patients with notching.4,5 for this reason, it's critical to believe all modifiable possibility factors that may have an effect on notching. further stories with greater surgeons are necessary to confirm the impact of implant lateralization design on postoperative notching.

The energy of this look at turned into the direct comparison of 3 implant designs used via a single surgeon, with manage for comply with-up time. however, a few obstacles stay beyond the retrospective design. besides the fact that children the leading aim of this study became to determine the position of lateralization on notching, the three designs used different humeral neck-shaft angles, which may also have affected the expense of notching. previous studies have tested enhanced scapular impingement in adduction with larger neck-shaft angles.13

Over time, surgical options have modified. The senior surgeon changed the types of the accessories between 0° and 30° of humeral retroversion. youngsters, top of the line humeral retroversion remains undefined and may fluctuate between patients.29 Surgeons have additionally discovered to vicinity the glenoid element decrease, which may additionally have diminished the expense of notching over time. The senior surgeon in this analyze also begun the usage of augmented glenoid baseplates later in the look at to enhance inferior tilt, thereby expanding the observed inferior tilt viewed within the lateralized humerus group.

moreover, there changed into a relatively bigger variety of sufferers within the lateralized humerus community, which became greater frequently implanted later within the analyze period. This certainly leaves the possibility of beta error, as well as being underpowered to discover some ameliorations, primarily between the Grammont and lateralized glenoid organizations. 2d, observe-up turned into regarded short-term (three to 5 years), which may additionally underestimate the long-time period incidence and grading of scapular notching. despite the fact, Simovitch et al5 confirmed that all shoulders that developed notching did so inside 14 months, which is past the minimum observe-up for this study. as a consequence, the incidence of scapular notching is still primary across designs. furthermore, early follow-up may be a probable explanation for the inability of difference viewed in professionals.

patients in the medialized CoR group had a reduce body mass index, which has been associated with notching.eleven patients with an multiplied physique mass index may additionally have delicate tissue or physique habitus, combating full adduction of the glenohumeral joint to the position of impingement/notching. The reduce physique mass index in this community doubtless represents the greater restrained signals for RSA previous in the examine length.

eventually, 2-dimensional measures of scapular morphology were used, which can be definitely area to rotational modifications across undeniable radiographs. youngsters, the authors had been unable to attain activities postoperative computed tomography scans because of can charge and subject for affected person radiation exposure.

Scapular notching continues to be a priority related to long-term implant survival and talents influence on affected person effects. during this single-surgeon series, a lateralized humeral RSA design produced the lowest incidence of scapular notching at early comply with-up. higher multicenter reports evaluating distinct designs are needed to additional investigate the in vivo performance of RSA design and its effect on lengthy-term notching and pros.


Lateralized humeral RSA designs showed less ordinary and fewer extreme scapular notching in comparison with Gram-mont and lateralized glenosphere designs during this single-surgeon series. No changes had been accompanied in range of motion, execs, or revision prices between distinctive implant designs. warning in deciphering these effects should be taken for the reason that implant option modified right through the researching curve of RSA. extra multisurgeon reports are critical to consider the long-time period effect of RSA lateralization design on scapular notching.

  • Affonso J, Nicholson GP, Frankle MA, et al. complications of the reverse prosthesis: prevention and treatment. Instr direction Lect. 2012;sixty one:157–168. PMID:22301230
  • Ackland DC, Patel M, Knox D. Prosthesis design and placement in reverse complete shoulder arthroplasty. J Orthop Surg Res. 2015;10(1):one hundred and one. doi:10.1186/s13018-015-0244-2 [CrossRef] PMID:26135298
  • Roche CP, Stroud NJ, Martin BL, et al. The influence of scapular notching on reverse shoulder glenoid fixation. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2013;22(7):963–970. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2012.10.035 [CrossRef] PMID:23333170
  • Mollon B, Mahure SA, Roche CP, Zuckerman JD. impact of scapular notching on medical consequences after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: an evaluation of 476 shoulders. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2017;26(7):1253–1261. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2016.11.043 [CrossRef] PMID:28111179
  • Simovitch RW, Zumstein MA, Lohri E, Helmy N, Gerber C. Predictors of scapular notching in patients managed with the Delta III reverse complete shoulder substitute. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(3):588–600. doi:10.2106/00004623-200703000-00016 [CrossRef] PMID:17332108
  • Athwal GS, MacDermid JC, Reddy KM, Marsh JP, Faber KJ, Drosdowech D. Does bony increased-offset reverse shoulder arthroplasty decrease scapular notching?J Shoulder Elbow Surg.2015;24(3):468–473. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2014.08.015 [CrossRef] PMID:25441556
  • Falaise V, Levigne C, Favard LSOFEC. Scapular notching in reverse shoulder arthroplasties: the impact of glenometaphyseal angle. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2011;97(6) (suppl):S131–S137. doi:10.1016/j.otsr.2011.06.007 [CrossRef] PMID:21820377
  • Kowalsky MS, Galatz LM, Shia DS, Steger-may additionally ok, Keener JD. the relationship between scapular notching and reverse shoulder arthroplasty prosthesis design. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2012;21(10):1430–1441. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2011.08.051 [CrossRef] PMID:22079766
  • Frankle M, Siegal S, Pupello D, Saleem A, Mighell M, Vasey M. The reverse shoulder prosthesis for glenohumeral arthritis linked to extreme rotator cuff deficiency: a minimum two-yr comply with-up examine of sixty sufferers. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87(eight):1697–1705. doi:10.2106/JBJS.D.02813 [CrossRef] PMID:16085607
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  • table 1

    Demographic records for All Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasties by Implant Design

    CharacteristicGrammontLateralized GlenosphereLateralized HumerusPP for put up hoc TestLateralized Glenosphere vs GrammontLateralized Glenosphere vs Lateralized HumerusGrammont vs Lateralized HumerusAge, mean (SD), y70.5 (6.4)seventy three.7 (5.7)72 (eight.0).4Female64.70%64.30%56.eighty%.7Follow-up, suggest (SD), mo48.1 (eleven.7)51.3 (eleven.9)forty nine.1 (10.5).7Body mass index, imply (SD), kg/m220.three (20.three)30.four (7.1)29.three (5.four).009.0411.009Table 2

    Preoperative Radiographic Measures by way of Implant Design

    MeasureGrammontLateralized GlenosphereLateralized HumerusPP for post hoc TestLateralized Glenosphere vs GrammontLateralized Glenosphere vs Lateralized HumerusGrammont vs Lateralized HumerusAcromiohumeral interval, mean (SD), mm2.5 (3.four)1.4 (2.2)four.1 (three.5).005.three.005.07Alpha attitude, imply (SD)132.3° (6.7°)133. 0° (5.0°)136.4° (7.four°).06Beta angle, mean (SD)seventy seven.1° (6.4°)81.7° (6.9°)eighty.0° (12.7°).3Table 3

    Postoperative Radiographic Measures with the aid of Implant Design

    MeasureGrammontLateralized GlenosphereLateralized HumerusPP for submit hoc TestLateralized Glenosphere vs GrammontLateralized Glenosphere vs Lateralized HumerusGrammont vs Lateralized HumerusAlpha attitude, mean (SD)141.6° (8.9°)142.8° (eight.four°)137.7° (10.3°).1Beta perspective, mean (SD)eighty four.4° (10.1°)88.2° (6.9°)eighty two.three° (7.5°).032.3.0281Glenosphere overhang, imply (SD), mm−1.35 (four.4)0.sixty six (1.1)5.68 (2.8)<.0011<.001<.001Scapular neck size, mean (SD), mm8.5 (three.5)8.7 (3.5)9.9 (4.0).2Notch (no./complete no.)82% (14/17)57% (eight/14)22% (28/125)<.001Notching grade, mean (SD)2.06 (1.4)1.07 (1.three)0.24 (0.5)<.001.2.009<.001Table 4

    Postoperative affected person-reported effects by way of Implant Design

    OutcomeMean (SD)PGrammontLateralized GlenosphereLateralized HumerusPreoperative pain score7.5 (3.5)7.1 (1.8)6 (2.4).4Postoperative ache score2.1 (2.7)2.4 (2.8)1.6 (2.2).3SPADI25.2 (17.eight)35.5 (22.8)26.4 (22.5).3SPADI 13034.3 (23.2)47.9 (29.5)35.6 (29.3).2SST score9 (2.6)8.four (three.1)8.8 (three.2).8ASES score76.four (16.5)sixty eight (22.four)seventy five.5 (19.8).4UCLA shoulder score27.3 (four.5)24.8 (7.8)27.9 (6.0).2Constant score69.9 (15.0)66 (17.9)seventy one.7 (sixteen.9).5SF-12 score35.four (7.1)33.5 (eight.6)34 (7.7).8External rotation24° (26.9°)33° (21.7°)26° (19.1°).6Elevation118° (31.eight°)103° (36.7°)121° (24.3°).2Abduction111° (29.9°)a hundred° (29.6°)113° (25.7°).4

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